بررسی برخی از ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی به همراه میکرومورفولوژی خاک‌های با منشأ آهک و گچ بر روی واحدهای مختلف زمین‌نما (مطالعه موردی: استان لرستان، الشتر)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری پیدایش و رده‌بندی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، ‌واحد علوم و تحقیقات، ‌دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ‌تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

3 استاد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: استفاده مطلوب و پایدار از خاک در صورتی امکان‌پذیر است که شناخت صحیح و کامل از خصوصیات آن داشته باشیم. این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی ویژگی­های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و میکرومورفولوژی خاک­ های تشکیل شده بر روی یک ترانسکت در منطقه نیمه‌خشک منطقه الشتر استان لرستان انجام شد.
مواد و روش: برای انجام این پژوهش، 5 خاک­رخ در امتداد یک ترانسکت در جهت شیب (فلات، واریزه­ های بادبزنی شکل و دشت دامنه ­ای)، در منطقه شناسایی و بر اساس نوع مواد مادری به واحدهای فیزیوگرافی مختلف تقسیم شدند. در هر واحد فیزیوگرافی، یک خاک­رخ حفر، تشریح و نمونه ­برداری شد. خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و میکرومورفولوژی نمونه ­های خاک تعیین و در نهایت خاک ­ها با استفاده از سیستم رده‌بندی آمریکایی و طبقه‌بندی جهانی رده‌بندی شدند.
 یافته­ ها: نتایج نشان داد که مقادیر کم ماده آلی در سطح و اعماق خاک به‌واسطه شدت تجزیه بالای این مواد در این مناطق است. کربنات کلسیم معادل در تمام خاک­رخ­ها روند افزایشی را با عمق نشان داد. بررسی مقاطع نازک نشان داد که از نظر نوع حفرات و پراکنش نسبی ذرات درشت به ذرات ریز (C/F) تفاوتی زیادی بین افق­ها وجود ندارد. حفرات صفحه­ای، وگی و کانالی بیش­ترین حفرات این خاک ­رخ ­ها را تشکیل داده بودند. انباشت آهک به شکل­ های گوناگون مانند پوشش، پر شدگی، آهک سوزنی و نودول­ های آهکی دیده شد که بیانگر ثانویه بودن آهک می ­باشد و سبب ایجاد بی فابریک از نوع کلسیت کریستالیک شده است. ریز ساختمان دیده شده در بیشتر افق­ها از نوع مکعبی ­زاویه ­دار و بدون زاویه بود. هم­چنین صفحات درهم قفل شده گچ در افق Bky در واحد فیزیوگرافی فلات گچی دیده شد. با توجه به وجود گچ پدوژنیک در خاک­ های منطقه و اهمیت افق جیبسیک در سیستم طبقه‌بندی خاک و تأثیر مهم آن بر رشد گیاهان، می­ توان پیشنهاد کرد که زیر گروه بزرگ جدیدی در زیر رده Xerepts، تحت عنوان Gypsic Calcixerepts در سیستم رده ­بندی خاک گنجانده شود.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج پژوهش نمایانگر نقش مهم پستی بلندی و مواد مادری در تغییرپذیری خصوصیات خاک ­ها می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of some Soil Physico-Chemical along with Micromorphological Properties with Calcareous and Gypsiferous Parent Materials in Different Landscaping Units (Case study: Lorestan province, Alashtar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • kolsoum rahmansalari 1
  • Mohamad Amir Delavar 2
  • Mehrdad Esfandiari 3
  • ebrahim pazira 3
1 PhD Student, Soil Genesis and Classification, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
3 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: The optimum and sustainable use of soil is only possible with a correct and complete understanding of its properties. This study was conducted to investigate of should be omitted some physical, chemical, and micromorphology properties of soil formed on the should be added landscapes in the should be added semi-arid region of Lorestan province.
Materials and Methods: For this study 5 profiles, a long, a should be omitted transect in the direction of slop (plateau, gravelly colluvial fan and pediment plain) were identified in the area, and divided into different physiographic unit based on the type of parent material. At each, physiographic units a profil was excavated, dissected sampled. Physicochemical together with micromorphological observations performed and Soil Taxonomy and WRB were used for soil classification.
Results: The results showed that should be omitted low amounts of organic carbon in the surface and depths of the soil due to the high rate of decomposition of these substances in these areas. The equivalent calcium carbonate in all profiles showed an increasing trend with depth. Thin section investigation showed that there was not much difference between the horizons in terms of the type of voids and the relative distribution of large particles (C/F). Planar, vugh and cannel voids were the most dominant voids of the profiles. Accumulation of calcite was seen in various forms such as coating, infilling, needle- shaped calcite, and nodules calcite which indicates that secondary calcite, and caused a should be omitted crystallite calcite of kind b-fabric. Soil structure in most the horizons of kind angular blocky and sub angular blocky. Also, lenticular plates gypsum was observed on the Bky horizon on the of the gypsum physiographic units plateau. According According to the existence of pedogenic gypsum in the soils of the region, and the important of the gypsum horizon in the soil classification system and its important effect on plant growth. New great groups, and subgroups of Xerepts (Gypsic Calcixerepts) are suggested to be included in soil taxonomy.
Conclusion: Results of the study showed raise in topography and parent material on the variability of soil properties in the area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physiographic Units
  • Gypsum and calcareous soils
  • Micromorphology
  • Pedogenic Effects

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