بررسی رطوبت سطح خاک شهرستان اردبیل با استفاده داده‌های ماهواره‌ای لندست 8 و سنتیل 1

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی اردبیل، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: رطوبت سطحی خاک، متغیری مهم در چرخه آبی طبیعت بوده و می‌تواند تحت تأثیر عوامل مختلفی از جمله دما و مشخصات خاک قرار گیرد. استفاده از سنسوهای زمین برای اندازه‌گیری رطوبت خاک منجر به‌صرف زمان و توزیع نامناسب نمونه‌ها در مقیاس‌های بزرگ شود بنابراین سنجش‌ازدوری می‌تواند ابزار مهمی در برآورد رطوبت خاک باشد. هدف پژوهش حاضر استفاده از مدل TOTRAM با استفاده از تصاویر لندست 8 و روش SVR با استفاده از تصاویر سنتیل1 برای برآورد رطوبت خاک می‌باشد.
روش پژوهش: شهرستان اردبیل به‌عنوان مرکز استان اردبیل در شمال غرب کشور واقع است. در مطالعه حاضر برای استخراج رطوبت خاک از دو روش TOTRAM بر مبنای توزیع پیکسل در فضای LST-VI و روش SVR با استفاده از تکنیک SAR و داده سنتینل 1 استفاده شده است. جهت پیاده‌سازی روش TOTRAM تصاویر لندست 8 مرتبط با تاریخ‌های 29/4/1398 و 30/05/1398 دانلود و پس از استخراج نقشه‌های NDVI و LST، اقدام به بررسی همبستگی بین متغیر وابسته رطوبت و متغیرهای مستقل دما و پوشش‌ گیاهی با استفاده از رگرسیون وزن‌دار جغرافیایی (GWR) شده است. برای اجرای روش SVR پس از دستیابی به تصاویر سنتینل 1 مربوط به تاریخ‌های 31/05/1398 و 27/04/1398، داده‌های رطوبت خاک محصول FLDAS و محصول 500 متری سالانه ماهواره مودیس (MCD12Q1) جهت طبقه‌بندی پوشش اراضی در سامانه Google Earth engine فراخوانی شدند و نقشه‌های مرتبط با رطوبت خاک استخراج شد. پس از استخراج نقشه‌های رطوبت نحوه‌ی توزیع رطوبت با استفاده از شاخص محلی موران بررسی شده است. بر طبق تعریف این شاخص مقادیر مثبت یک برای این شاخص نشان دهنده‌ی خوشه‌ای بودن توزیع خواهد بود.
یافته‌ها: بررسی نقشه رطوبت حاصل از روش SVR تمرکز رطوبت در مناطقی با حضور پوشش گیاهی و آب را نشان داد و تغییر وضعیت رطوبت از تیر به مرداد قابل مشاهده بوده است. الگوی رطوبت انعکاس الگوی بارشی را نشان داده است به‌طوری‌که حداکثر بارش و رطوبت در فروردین بوده و در تابستان هر دو مؤلفه‌ی بارش و رطوبت کاهش داشته‌اند. بررسی روش TOTRAM و اعمال روش GWR همبستگی کامل NDVI-LST و رطوبت را نشان داد. البته همبستگی بین LST و رطوبت با مقادیر (بتا) B و خطای استاندارد (SE) 995/0 و صفر متناسب با مرداد و 981/0 و صفر متناسب با تیرماه بیشترین همبستگی را نسبت به متغیر پوشش‌گیاهی با پارامتر وابسته‌ی رطوبت نشان داده است که این همبستگی در مرداد ماه با افزایش مقدار ضریب تعیین R2 به 997/0 و کاهش معنی‌داری NDVI به مقدار 415/0 در تیرماه به‌مراتب بیشتر شده است. اعمال شاخص محلی موران با مقادیر کمتر از 0.05 برایp-value و مقادیر مثبت z و عدد نزدیک مثبت یک برای شاخص موران خوشه‌ای بودن توزیع متغیر رطوبت را نشان داده است.
نتایج: بررسی نتایج روش‌های TOTRAM و SVR وابستگی وضعیت رطوبت خاک به شرایط و خوشه‌ای بودن توزیع رطوبت را نشان داد. با توجه به ضرایب همبستگی حاصل از رگرسیون وزن‌دار جغرافیایی همبستگی بیشتری بین متغیر دما و رطوبت به‌ویژه در مرداد ماه به دلیل کاهش تراکم پوشش گیاهی مشاهده ‌شده است. بررسی نقشه‌های الگوریتم SVR نشان داد در مناطقی با حضور پوشش گیاهی و بخصوص تراکم آن شاهد افزایش و با افزایش دما شاهد کاهش رطوبت هستیم. همچنین هماهنگی الگوی‌های رطوبت الگوریتم SVR و بارش رابطه مستقیم بین رطوبت و بارش را نشان داد. با توجه به اینکه روش SVR از تصاویر سنتینل 1 و پارامترهایی نظیر شدت پراکنش رادار و طبقه‌بندی پوشش اراضی استفاده می‎کند می‌توان انتظار نتایج دقیق‌تری از این الگوریتم داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Soil Surface Moisture in Ardabil City Using Landsat 8 and Sentile 1 satellite Data

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayyad Asghari Saraskanrod 1
  • Fariba Esfandayari Darabad 1
  • Elham Mollanouri 2
  • Shiva Safary 2
1 Professor, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran.
2 Master student of Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Surface soil moisture is an important variable in nature's water cycle and can be affected by various factors, including temperature and soil characteristics. The use of ground sensors for measuring moisture can lead to spending time and expense and inappropriate distribution of samples on large scales. Therefore, Remote sensing observations can be an important tool in estimating soil moisture. The present study aims to use the TOTRAM model using Landsat 8 images and the SVR method using Sentile 1 images to estimate soil moisture.
Methods: In the present study, two TOTRAM methods based on pixel distribution in LST- VI space and the SVR method were used to extract soil moisture using the SAR technique and Sentinel 1 data. To implement the TOTRAM method, Landsat 8 images related to 4/29/1398 and 5/30/1398 are downloaded and after extracting NDVI and LST maps, The correlation between the dependent variable of moisture and independent temperature variables and vegetation variables has been investigated using Geographically weighted regression (GWR). To implement the SVR method after acquiring Sentinel 1 images related to 31/05/1398 and 27/04/1398, Soil Moisture Data Product FLDAS and 500 meters product of Modis Satellite (MCD12q1) were called to classify land cover in the Google Earth Engine system, and maps related to soil moisture were extracted. After extracting the moisture maps the distribution of moisture using the local Moran index has been investigated. By defining this index, positive values ​​for this index represent the cluster of distribution.
Results: Examination of the soil moisture map obtained by the SVR method showed the concentration of moisture in areas with vegetation and water and the change in moisture status from July to August was visible. The humidity pattern has shown the reflection of the precipitation pattern so that maximum precipitation and humidity were observed in April and in summer both precipitation and humidity components decreased. Examination of the TOTRAM method and application of the GWR method has shown a complete correlation between NDVI LST and moisture. However, the correlation between LST and humidity with B (values) and standard error (SE) of 0.995 and zero corresponding to July and 0.981 and zero corresponding to August showed the highest correlation with vegetation variable with moisture dependence parameter, which this correlation In August, with increasing the coefficient of determination of R2 to 0.997 and a significant decrease of NDVI to the value of 0.415 in July, it has increased much more. Application of Moran local index with values ​​less than 0.05 for p-value and positive values ​​for z and near positive number 1 for Moran index showed the cluster distribution of moisture variable.
Conclusion: The results of TOTRAM and SVR methods showed the dependence of soil moisture status on conditions and cluster moisture distribution. According to the correlation coefficients of geographical regression, there is a greater correlation between temperature and humidity variables, especially in August, due to the decrease in vegetation density. The results of the SVR algorithm maps showed that in areas with the presence of vegetation, especially dense vegetation, we see an increase and with increasing temperature, we see a decrease in humidity. Also, the coordination of moisture patterns of the SVR algorithm and precipitation showed a direct relationship between moisture and precipitation. Considering that the SVR method uses parameters such as radar scattering intensity and land cover classification, as well as the use of Sentinel 1 radar images by this algorithm, more accurate results can be expected from this algorithm.
Keywords: LST, NDVI, Support vector regression, TOTRAM
Background and Aim: Surface soil moisture is an important variable in nature's water cycle and can be affected by various factors, including temperature and soil characteristics. The use of ground sensors for measuring moisture can lead to spending time and expense and inappropriate distribution of samples on large scales. Therefore, Remote sensing observations can be an important tool in estimating soil moisture. The present study aims to use the TOTRAM model using Landsat 8 images and the SVR method using Sentile 1 images to estimate soil moisture.
Methods: In the present study, two TOTRAM methods based on pixel distribution in LST- VI space and the SVR method were used to extract soil moisture using the SAR technique and Sentinel 1 data. To implement the TOTRAM method, Landsat 8 images related to 4/29/1398 and 5/30/1398 are downloaded and after extracting NDVI and LST maps, The correlation between the dependent variable of moisture and independent temperature variables and vegetation variables has been investigated using Geographically weighted regression (GWR). To implement the SVR method after acquiring Sentinel 1 images related to 31/05/1398 and 27/04/1398, Soil Moisture Data Product FLDAS and 500 meters product of Modis Satellite (MCD12q1) were called to classify land cover in the Google Earth Engine system, and maps related to soil moisture were extracted. After extracting the moisture maps the distribution of moisture using the local Moran index has been investigated. By defining this index, positive values ​​for this index represent the cluster of distribution.
Results: Examination of the soil moisture map obtained by the SVR method showed the concentration of moisture in areas with vegetation and water and the change in moisture status from July to August was visible. The humidity pattern has shown the reflection of the precipitation pattern so that maximum precipitation and humidity were observed in April and in summer both precipitation and humidity components decreased. Examination of the TOTRAM method and application of the GWR method has shown a complete correlation between NDVI LST and moisture. However, the correlation between LST and humidity with B (values) and standard error (SE) of 0.995 and zero corresponding to July and 0.981 and zero corresponding to August showed the highest correlation with vegetation variable with moisture dependence parameter, which this correlation In August, with increasing the coefficient of determination of R2 to 0.997 and a significant decrease of NDVI to the value of 0.415 in July, it has increased much more. Application of Moran local index with values ​​less than 0.05 for p-value and positive values ​​for z and near positive number 1 for Moran index showed the cluster distribution of moisture variable.
Conclusion: The results of TOTRAM and SVR methods showed the dependence of soil moisture status on conditions and cluster moisture distribution. According to the correlation coefficients of geographical regression, there is a greater correlation between temperature and humidity variables, especially in August, due to the decrease in vegetation density. The results of the SVR algorithm maps showed that in areas with the presence of vegetation, especially dense vegetation, we see an increase and with increasing temperature, we see a decrease in humidity. Also, the coordination of moisture patterns of the SVR algorithm and precipitation showed a direct relationship between moisture and precipitation. Considering that the SVR method uses parameters such as radar scattering intensity and land cover classification, as well as the use of Sentinel 1 radar images by this algorithm, more accurate results can be expected from this algorithm.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • LST
  • NDVI
  • Support vector regression
  • TOTRAM
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